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【Efoodline】Republic of Singapore Country
云食界 2022-08-12 16:32:35

Singapore, offificially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bordering the Strait of Malacca to the west, the Singapore Strait to the south, the South China Sea to the east, and the Straits of Johor to the north. The country's territory is composed of one main island, 63 satellite islands and islets, and one outlying islet, the combined area of which has increased by 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation projects. It has the third highest population density in the world. With a multicultural population and recognising the need to respect cultural identities of the major ethnic groups within the nation, Singapore has four offificial languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. English is the lingua franca and numerous public services are available only in English. Multiracialism is enshrined in the constitution and continues to shape national policies in education, housing, and politics. Singapore's history dates back at least a millennium, having been a maritime emporium known as Temasek and subsequently as a major constituent part of several successive thalassocratic empires. Its contemporary era began in 1819 when Stamford Rafflfles established Singapore as an entrepôt trading post of the British Empire. In 1867, the colonies in Southeast Asia were reorganised and Singapore came under the direct control of Britain as part of the Straits Settlements. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan in 1942, and returned to British control as a separate crown colony following Japan's surrender in 1945.

Singapore gained self-governance in 1959 and in 1963 became part of the new federation of Malaysia, alongside Malaya, North Borneo, and Sarawak. Ideological differences, most notably the perceived encroachment of the egalitarian "Malaysian Malaysia" political ideology led by Lee Kuan Yew into the other constituent entities of Malaysia—at the perceived expense of the bumiputera and the policies of Ketuanan Melayueventually led to Singapore's expulsion from the federation two years later; Singapore became an independent sovereign country in 1965.

After early years of turbulence whilst lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation rapidly developed to become one of the Four Asian Tigers based on international trade and economic globalisation, integrating itself within the world economy through free trade with minimal to no trade barriers or tariffs, export-oriented industrialisation, and the large accumulation of received foreign direct investments, foreign-exchange reserves, and assets held by sovereign wealth funds. A highly developed country, it is tied for 11th on the UN Human Development Index and has the second-highest GDP per capita (PPP) in the world. Identifified as a tax haven, Singapore is the only country in Asia with a AAA sovereign credit rating from all major rating agencies. It is a major aviation, fifinancial, and maritime shipping hub, and has consistently been ranked as one of the most expensive cities to live in for expatriates and foreign workers. Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety, infrastructure, and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 88 percent. Singaporeans enjoy one of the longest life expectancies, fastest Internet connection speeds, lowest infant mortality rates, and lowest levels of corruption in the world.

Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government, and its legal system is based on common law. Although the country is a multi-party democracy with free elections, the government under the People's Action Party (PAP) wields signifificant control and dominance over politics and society. The PAP has ruled the country continuously since full internal self-government was achieved in 1959, with 83 out of 104 seats in Parliament as of the 2020 election, the rest of the seats being held by the Workers' Party (WP) and the Progress Singapore Party (PSP). One of the fifive founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is also the headquarters of the Asia-Pacifific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat, the Pacifific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) Secretariat, and is the host city of many international conferences and events. Singapore is also a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, and the

Commonwealth of Nations


In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. [21] Although the historicity of the accounts as given in the Malay Annals is the subject of academic debates,[22] it is nevertheless known from various documents that Singapore in the 14th century, then known as Temasek, was a trading port under the inflfluence of both the Majapahit Empire and the Siamese kingdoms,[23] and was a part of the Indosphere. [24][25][26][27][28] These Indianised kingdoms were characterised by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability.[29] Historical sources also indicate that around the end of the 14th century, its ruler Parameswara was attacked by either the Majapahit or the Siamese, forcing him to move to Malacca where he founded the Sultanate of Malacca. [30] Archaeological evidence suggests that the main settlement on Fort Canning was abandoned around this time, although a small trading settlement continued in Singapore for some time afterwards.[13] In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, and the island faded into obscurity for the next two centuries.[31] By then, Singapore was nominally part of the Johor Sultanate. [32] The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period after the Dutch conquest of Malacca

Republic of Singapore

See also: Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 After being expelled from Malaysia, Singapore became independent as the Republic of Singapore on 9 August 1965,[93][94] with Lee Kuan Yew and Yusof bin Ishak as the fifirst prime minister and president respectively.[95][96] In 1967, the country co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).[97] Race riots broke out once more in 1969.[98] Lee Kuan Yew's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singapore's policies for the next half-century.[99][100] Economic growth continued throughout the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to shift towards high-tech industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to remain competitive as neighbouring countries began manufacturing with cheaper labour. Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was formed.[101] The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period.[102][103] The PAP, which has remained in power since independence, is believed to rule in an authoritarian manner by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.[104] In response, Singapore has seen several signifificant political changes, such as the introduction of the Non-Constituency members of parliament in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) were introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.[105] Nominated members of parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.[106] The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an Elected President who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public offifice.[107] In 1990, Goh Chok Tong succeeded Lee and became Singapore's second prime minister.[108] During Goh's tenure, the country went through the 1997 Asian fifinancial crisis and the 2003 SARS outbreak.[109][110] In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the country's third prime minister.[110] Lee Hsien Loong's tenure included the 2008 global fifinancial crisis, the resolution of a dispute over land ownership at Tanjong Pagar railway station between Singapore and Malaysia, and the introduction of the 2 integrated resorts (IRs), located at the Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa. [111] The People's Action Party (PAP) suffered its worst ever electoral results in 2011,

winning just 60% of votes, amidst debate over issues including the inflflux of foreign workers and the high cost of living.[112] On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew died, and a one week period of public mourning was observed nationwide.[100] Subsequently, the PAP regained its dominance in Parliament through the September general election, receiving 69.9% of the popular vote,[113] although this remained lower than the 2001 tally of 75.3%[114] and the 1968 tally of 86.7%.[115] The 2020 election held in July saw the PAP drop to 61% of the vote, while the opposition Workers' Party took 10 of the 93 seats, the highest number ever won by an opposition party Government and politics Main articles: Government of Singapore, Politics of Singapore, and Administrative divisions of Singapore Singapore is a parliamentary republic based on the Westminster system. The Constitution of Singapore is the supreme law of the country, establishing the structure and responsibility of government. The president is head of state and exercises executive power on the advice of her ministers. The prime minister is head of government and is appointed by the president as the person most likely to command the confifidence of a majority of Parliament. Cabinet is chosen by the prime minister and formally appointed by thepresident.[117]

The government is separated into three branches:

Executive: The president is commander-in-chief of the military,[118] can veto laws before they become effective (subject to parliamentary override), and holds limited discretionary powers of oversight over the government.[119] The prime minister and Cabinet are responsible for administering and enforcing laws and policies.[73]Legislative: The unicameral Parliament enacts national law, approves budgets, and provides a check on government policy.[120]Judiciary: The Supreme Court and State Courts—whose judges are appointed by the president—adjudicate disputes betweenpeople, and interpret laws and overturn those they fifind unconstitutional.[121]The president is directly elected by popular vote for a renewable six-year term. Requirements for this position, which were enacted by the

PAP government, are extremely stringent, such that only a handful of people qualify for the candidacy.[122][123] These qualifificationsinclude that a candidate needs to be a person at least 45 years of age who is no longer a member of a political party, to either have heldpublic offifice for at least 3 years in a number of specifific public service leadership roles, or to have 3 years experience as chief executiveof a fully profifitable private sector company with at least S$500 million in shareholders’ equity, be a resident in Singapore for at least 10years, not have a criminal record, and more.[124][123][125] Candidates must also "satisfy" the Presidential Elections Committee (PEC) thathe or she is a person of integrity, good character and reputation.

The Constitution requires that presidential elections be "reserved" for a racial community if no one from that ethnic group has been elected to the presidency in the fifive most recent terms.[126] Only members of that community may qualify as candidates in a reserved presidential election.[127] In the 2017 presidential election, this combination of stringent requirements and a reserved election that

required the candidate to be of the 13% Malay ethnic group led to a single person being qualifified for the offifice;[128] Halimah Yacob, considered part of the Malay community, won in an uncontested election. She also became Singapore's fifirst female president. Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected at least every fifive years (or sooner in the case of a snap election). The 14th and currentParliament has 103 members; 93 were directly elected from the 31 constituencies, nine are nonpartisan nominated members appointed by the president, and three are non-constituency members from opposition parties who were not elected in the last general election butappointed to the legislature to increase opposition party representation. In group representation constituencies (GRCs), political parties assemble teams of candidates (rather than nominate individuals) to contest elections. At least one MP in a GRC must be of an ethnic minority background. All elections are held using fifirst-past-the-post voting. [129] The People's Action Party (PAP) occupies a dominantposition in Singaporean politics, having won large parliamentary majorities in every election since self-governance was granted in 1959,promulgating limits on assembly, association, expression and the press except for the Speakers' Corner. [130] Even its candidates who lose elections are often turned to by constituency residents for assistance. The most effective opposition party is the Workers' Party. [116] The judicial system is based on English common law, continuing the legal tradition established during British rule and with substantial local differences. Criminal law is based on the Indian Penal Code originally intended for British India, and was at the time as a crown colony also adopted by the British colonial authorities in Singapore and remains the basis of the criminal code in the country with a few exceptions, amendments and repeals since it came into force.[131] Trial by jury was abolished in 1970.[132] Both corporal punishment (caning) [133][134] and capital punishment (by hanging) are legal penalties.[135] The right to freedom of speech and association is guaranteed by Article 14(1) of the Constitution of Singapore, although there are provisions in the subsequent subsection (2) of the same Article that regulate them.[136] The government has attempted to restrict freedom of speech and freedom of the press as well as some civil and political rights.[137] In 2022, Singapore was ranked 139th out of 180 nations by Reporters Without Borders on the global Press Freedom Index. [138] Freedom House ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report,[139][130] and the Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Singapore as a "flflawed democracy", the second best rank of four, in its "Democracy


In the Corruption Perceptions Index which ranks countries by "perceived levels of public sector corruption", Singapore has consistently ranked as one of the least corrupt.[142] Singapore's unique combination of a strong, almost authoritarian government with an emphasis on meritocracy and good governance is known as the "Singapore model", and isregarded as a key factor behind Singapore's political stability, economic growth, and harmonious social order.[143][144][145][146] In 2021, the World Justice Project's Rule of Law Index ranked Singapore as 17th overall among the world's 139 countries for adherence to the rule of law. Singapore ranked high on the factors of order and security (#3),absence of corruption (#3), regulatory enforcement (#4), civil justice (#8), and criminal justice (#7), and ranked signifificantly lower on factors of open government (#34),constraints on government powers (#32), and fundamental rights (#38).[147] All public gatherings of fifive or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be heldonly at the Speakers' Corner. [148] In 2021, six individuals were given warnings by the police after protesting outside the Ministry of Education headquarters at Buona Vista. They were warned as the protest was considered unauthorised having not been held at the Speakers' Corner. The protests were in regards to demanding more trans rights and support such as gender dysphoria in the Singaporean educational system.

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Singapore

Singapore's stated foreign policy priority is maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region.[151] It has diplomatic relations with more than 180 sovereign states.[152]As one of the fifive founding members of ASEAN, [153] Singapore is a strong supporter of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)and the ASEAN Investment Area (AIA); it is also the host of the APEC Secretariat.[154] Singapore maintains membership in other regional organisations, such as Asia–Europe Meeting, the Forum for East Asia-Latin American Cooperation, the IndianOcean Rim Association, and the East Asia Summit. [151] It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement,[155] the UnitedNations and the Commonwealth. [156][157] While Singapore is not a formal member of the G20, it has been invited to participatein G20 processes in most years since 2010.[158] Singapore is also the location of the Pacifific Economic Cooperation Council(PECC) Secretariat.[159]In general, bilateral relations with other ASEAN members are strong; however, disagreements have arisen,[160] and relationswith neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia have sometimes been strained.[161] Malaysia and Singapore have clashed over thedelivery of fresh water to Singapore,[162] and access by the Singapore Armed Forces to Malaysian airspace.[161] Border issues

exist with Malaysia and Indonesia, and both have banned the sale of marine sand to Singapore over disputes aboutSingapore's land reclamation.[163] Some previous disputes, such as the Pedra Branca dispute, have been resolved by the International Court of Justice. [164] Piracy in the Strait of Malacca has been a cause of concern for all three countries.[162] Close economic ties exist with Brunei, and the two share a pegged currency value, through a Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the two countries which makes both Brunei dollar and Singapore dollar banknotes and coins legal tender in either country.[165][166]

The fifirst diplomatic contact with China was made in the 1970s, with full diplomatic relations established in the 1990s. China has been Singapore's largest trading partner since 2013, after surpassing Malaysia.[167][168][169][170][171] Singapore and the United States share a long-standing close relationship, in particular in defence, the economy, health, and education. Singapore has also increased co-operation with ASEAN members and China to strengthen regional security and fifight terrorism, and participated in ASEAN's fifirst joint maritime exercise with China in 2018.[172] It has also given support to the US-led coalition to fifight terrorism, with bilateral co-operation in counter-terrorism and counter proliferation initiatives, and joint military exercises.[160]

As Singapore has diplomatic relations with both the United States and North Korea, and was one of the few countries that have relationships with both countries,[173] in June 2018, it hosted a historic summit between US President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un, the fifirst-ever meeting between the sitting leaders of the two nations.[174][175] It also hosted the Ma–Xi meeting in 2015, the fifirst meeting between the political leaders of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950.


Singapore consists of 63 islands, including the main island, Pulau Ujong. [221] There are two-man-made connections to Johor, Malaysia: the Johor–Singapore Causeway in the north and the Tuas Second Link in the west. Jurong Island, Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin and Sentosa are the largest of Singapore's smaller islands. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at 163.63 m (537 ft).[222] Under British rule, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands were part of Singapore, and both were transferred to Australia in 1957.[223][224][225] Pedra Branca is the nation's easternmost point.[226] Land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from 580 km2 (220 sq mi) in the 1960s to 710 km2 (270 sq mi) by 2015, an increase of some 22% (130 km2).[227] The country is projected to reclaim another 56 km2 (20 sq mi).[228] Some projects involve merging smaller islands through land reclamation to form larger, more functional and habitable islands, as has been done with Jurong Island.[229] The type of sand used in reclamation is found in rivers and beaches, rather than deserts, and is in great demand worldwide.

In 2010 Singapore imported almost 15 million tons of sand for its projects, the demand being such that Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam have all restricted or barred the export of sand to Singapore in recent years. As a result, in 2016 Singapore switched to using polders forreclamation, in which an area is enclosed and then pumped dry;


Singapore's urbanisation means that it has lost 95% of its historical forests,[231] and now over half of the naturally occurring fauna and flflora in Singapore is present in nature reserves, such as the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, which comprise only 0.25% of Singapore's land area.[231] In 1967, to combat this decline in natural space, the government introduced the vision of making Singapore a "garden city",[232] aiming to improve quality of life.[233] Since then, nearly 10% of Singapore's land has been set aside for parks and nature reserves. [234] The government has created plans to preserve the country's remaining wildlife. [235] Singapore's well known gardens include the Singapore Botanic Gardens, a 161-year-old tropical garden and Singapore's fifirst UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Singapore has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen: Af) with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall.[237][238] Temperatures usually range from 23 to 32 °C (73 to 90 °F). While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to February.[239]From July to October, there is oten haze caused by bush fifires in neighbouring Indonesia, usually from the island of Sumatra. [240] Singapore follows the GMT+8 time zone, one hour ahead of the typical zone for its geographical location.[241] This causes the sun to rise and set particularly late during February, where the sun rises at 7:15 am and sets around 7:20 pm. During July, the sun sets at around 7:15 pm. The earliest the sun rises and sets is in late October and early November when the sun rises at 6:46 am and sets at 6:50 pm.[242]

Singapore recognises that climate change and rising sea levels in the decades ahead will have major implications for its low-lying coastline. It estimates that the nation will needto spend $100 billion over the course of the next century to address the issue. In its 2020 budget, the government set aside an initial $5 billion towards a Coastline and Flood Protection Fund.[243][244] Singapore is the fifirst country in Southeast Asia to levy a carbon tax on its largest carbon-emitting corporations producing more than 25,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year, at $5 per ton.[245] To reduce the country's dependence on fossil fuels, it has ramped up deployment of solar panels on rooftops and vertical surfaces of buildings, and other initiatives like buildingone of the world's largest flfloating solar farms at Tengeh Reservoir in Tuas


Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. Along with Hong Kong, South Korea,and Taiwan, Singapore is one of the Four Asian Tigers, and has surpassed its peers in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) percapita. Between 1965 and 1995, growth rates averaged around 6 per cent per annum, transforming the living standards of thepopulation.[250]The Singaporean economy is regarded as free,[251] innovative,[252] dynamic[253] and business-friendly.[254] For several years, Singaporehas been one of the few[255] countries with an AAA credit rating from the big three, and the only Asian country to achieve this rating.[256]Singapore attracts a large amount of foreign investment as a result of its location, skilled workforce, low tax rates, advanced infrastructure and zero-tolerance against corruption.[257] It is the world's most competitive economy in 2019, according to the World Economic Forum's ranking of 141 countries,[258] with the 2nd highest GDP per capita. [259][260] Roughly 44 percent of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.[261] Despite market freedom, Singapore's government operations have a signifificant stake inthe economy, contributing 22% of the GDP.[262] The city is a popular location for conferences and events.[263]The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar (SGD or S$), issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).[264] It is interchangeable with the Brunei dollar at par value since 1967.[265] MAS manages its monetary policy by allowing the Singapore dollar exchange rate to rise or fall within an undisclosed trading band. This is different from most

central banks, which use interest rates to manage policy.[266] Singapore has the world's eleventh largest foreign reserves, [267] and one of the highest net international investmentposition per capita. [268][269]Singapore has been identifified as a tax haven[270] for the wealthy due to its low tax rates on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains.

Individuals such as Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore.[271] In 2009, Singapore was removed from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "liste grise" of tax havens,[272] and ranked fourth on the Tax Justice Network's 2015 Financial Secrecy Index of the world's off-shore fifinancial service providers, banking one-eighth of the world's offshore capital,while "providing numerous tax avoidance and evasion opportunities".[273] In August 2016, The Straits Times reported that Indonesia had decided to create tax havens on two islands near Singapore to bring Indonesian capital back into the tax base.[274] In October 2016, the Monetary Authority of Singapore admonished and fifined UBS and DBS andwithdrew Falcon Private Bank's banking licence for their alleged role in the Malaysian Sovereign Fund scandal.

Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludesproperty, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's mostexpensive.[277] In 2016, Singapore was rated the world's most expensive city for the third consecutive year by the Economist Intelligence Unit, [278][279] and this remained true in2018.[280] The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the Ministry of Social and Family Development, so acute poverty is rare. Some of the programmes include providing between S$400 and S$1000 of fifinancial assistance per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's tuition.[281][282][283] Other benefifits include compensation for gym fees to encourage citizens to exercise,[284] up to S$166,000 as a baby bonus for each citizen,[285] heavily subsidised healthcare, fifinancial aid for the disabled, the provision of reduced-cost laptops for poor students,[286] rebates for costs such as public transport[287] and utility bills, and more.[288][289] As of 2018 Singapore's ranking in the Human Development Index is 9th in the world, with an HDI value of 0.935.

Economy Statistics (Recent Years) : Year 2014 To Year 2018


Main article: Employment in Singapore

Singapore has a low unemployment rate for a developed country, with the rate not exceeding 4% from 2005 to 2014, and reaching highs of 3.1% in 2005 and 3% during the 2009 global fifinancial crisis; it fell to 1.8% in the fifirst quarter of 2015.[300] Singapore does not have a minimum wage, believing that it would lower its competitiveness. It also has one of the highest income inequalities among developed countries. [301][302] Although recognising that foreign workers are crucial to the country's economy, the government has considered placing limits on inflflows of these workers,[303] as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry.[304][305]

Industry sectors

Singapore is the world's 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 6th-largest fifinancial centre, [306] 2nd-largest casino gambling market,[307] 3rd-largest oil-refifining and trading centre, largest oil-rig producer and hub for ship repair services,[308][309][310] and largest logistics hub.[311] The economy is diversifified, with its top contributors being fifinancial services, manufacturing, and oil-refifining. Its main exports are reifined petroleum, integrated circuits, and computers,[312] which constituted 27% of the country's GDP in 2010. Other signifificant sectors include electronics, chemicals, mechanical engineering, and biomedical sciences. Singapore was ranked 8th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, the same as in 2019 and 2020.[313][314][315][316][317] In 2019, there were more than 60 semiconductor companies in Singapore, which together constituted 11% of the global market share. The semiconductor industry alone contributes around 7% of Singapore's GDP.[318]

Singapore's largest companies are in the telecommunications, banking, transportation, and manufacturing sectors, many of which started as state-run statutory corporations and have since been publicly listed on the Singapore Exchange. Such companies include Singapore Telecommunications (Singtel), Singapore Technologies Engineering, Keppel Corporation, Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC), Development Bank of Singapore (DBS), and United Overseas Bank (UOB). In 2011, amidst the global fifinancial crisis, OCBC, DBS and UOB were ranked by Bloomberg Businessweek as the world's 1st, 5th, and 6th strongest banks in the world, respectively.[319] It is home to the headquarters of 3 Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest in the region.[320]The nation's best known global companies include Singapore Airlines, Changi Airport, and the Port of Singapore, all of which are among the most-awarded in their respective fifields. Singapore Airlines was ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and the world's 19th most-admired company in 2015 by Fortune’s annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys. Other awards it has received include the US-based Travel + Leisure’s Best International Airline award, which it has won for 20 consecutive years.[321][322] Changi Airport connects over 100 airlines to more than 300 cities. The strategic international air hub has more than 480 World's Best Airport awards as of 2015, and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world.[323] Over ten free-trade agreements have been signed with other countries and regions.[160] Singapore is the second largest foreign investor in India.[324] It is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.


Main article: Tourism in Singapore

Tourism is a major industry and contributor to the Singaporean economy, attracting 18.5 million international tourists in 2018, more than three times Singapore's total population.[327] Singapore is the 5th most visited city in the world, and 2nd in the Asia-Pacifific.[328] In 2019 tourism contributed directly to about 4% of Singapore's GDP,[329] down from 2016, when tourism contributed, directly and indirectly, to around 9.9% of Singapore's GDP.[330] Altogether, the sector generated approximately 8.6% of Singapore's employment in 2016.[330]The Singapore Tourism Board (STB) is the statutory board under the Ministry of Trade and Industry which is tasked with the promotion ofthe country's tourism industry. In August 2017 the STB and the Economic Development Board (EDB) unveiled a unifified brand, Singapore

– Passion Made Possible, to market Singapore internationally for tourism and business purposes.[331] The Orchard Road district, whichcontains multi-storey shopping centres and hotels, can be considered the centre of shopping and tourism in Singapore.[332] Other populartourist attractions include the Singapore Zoo, River Wonders and Night Safari. The Singapore Zoo has embraced the open zoo conceptwhereby animals are kept in enclosures, separated from visitors by hidden dry or wet moats, instead of caging the animals, and the RiverWonders has 300 species of animals, including numerous endangered species.[333] Singapore promotes itself as a medical tourism hub, with about 200,000 foreigners seeking medical care there each year. Singapore medical services aim to serve at least one million foreign patients annually and generate US$3 billion in revenue.[334] In 2015, Lonely Planet and The New York Times listed Singapore as their top and 6th-best world destinations to visit, respectively.[335]Well-known landmarks include the Merlion, [336] the Esplanade, [337] Marina Bay Sands, [338] Gardens by the Bay, [339] Jewel Changi Airport, [340] CHIJMES, [337] National Gallery Singapore, [337] the Singapore Flyer, [337] the Orchard Road shopping belt,[332] the resort island of Sentosa, [341] and the Singapore Botanic Gardens, Singapore's fifirst UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. [342]Infrastructure


Main article: Transport in Singapore

Singapore has a road system covering 3,356 kilometres (2,085 mi), which includes 161 kilometres (100 mi) of expressways. [343][344] TheSingapore Area Licensing Scheme, implemented in 1975, became the world's fifirst congestion pricing scheme, and included othercomplementary measures such as stringent car ownership quotas and improvements in mass transit.[345][346] Upgraded in 1998 and

renamed Electronic Road Pricing (ERP), the system introduced electronic toll collection, electronic detection, and video surveillancetechnology.[347] A satellite-based system was due to replace the physical gantries by 2020, but has been delayed until 2026 due to globalshortages in the supply of semiconductors.[348] As Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars

on the road is restricted with a pre-set car population quota, to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for AdditionalRegistration Fees (ARF) duties of either 100%, 140%, 180% or 220% of the vehicle's Open Market Value (OMV), and bid for a Singaporean Certifificate of Entitlement (COE) (that varies twice a month in supply based on the number of car registrations and deregistrations), which allows the car to be driven on the road for maximum period of 10 years. Car prices are generally signifificantly higherin Singapore than in other English-speaking countries.[349] As with most Commonwealth countries, vehicles on the road and peoplewalking on the streets keep to the left (left-hand traffific).[350]Common alternatives to private vehicles include bicycles, bus, taxis and train (MRT or LRT). Two companies run the train transportsystem—SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. Four companies, Go-Ahead, Tower-Transit, SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation run the public buses under a 'Bus Contracting

Model' where operators bid for routes. There are six taxi companies, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road.[351] Taxis are a popular form of transport as the fares arerelatively affordable when compared to many other developed countries, whilst cars in Singapore are the most expensive to own worldwide.[352]

Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. Changi Airport is an aviation centre for Southeast Asia and astopover on the Kangaroo Route between Sydney and London.[353] There are two civilian airports in Singapore, Singapore Changi Airport and Seletar Airport. [354][355] SingaporeChangi Airport hosts a network of over 100 airlines connecting Singapore to some 300 cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide.[356] It has been rated one of the bestinternational airports by international travel magazines, including being rated as the world's best airport for the fifirst time in 2006 by Skytrax. [357] The national airline is SingaporeAirlines. [358] The Port of Singapore, managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port, was the world's second-busiest port in 2019 in terms of shipping tonnagehandled, at 2.85 billion gross tons (GT), and in terms of containerised traffific, at 37.2 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs).[359] It is also the world's second-busiest, behindShanghai, in terms of cargo tonnage with 626 million tons handled. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffific and the world's biggest ship refuelling


The Johor–Singapore Causeway (connecting Singapore with Johor Bahru, Malaysia) is the busiest international land border crossing in the world, whereby approximately350,000 travellers cross the border checkpoints of both Woodlands Checkpoint and Sultan Iskandar Building daily (with an annual total of 128 million travellers).[361] SingaporeChangi Airport also had the second and third-busiest international air routes in the world; the Jakarta-Singapore airport pair had 4.8 million passengers carried in 2018, whilst the Singapore-Kuala Lumpur airport pair had 4.5 million passengers carried in 2018, both trailing only behind Hong Kong-Taipei (6.5 million).

Fresh water

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in SingaporeSingapore considers water a national security issue and the government has sought to emphasise conservation.[362] Water access is universal and of high quality, though thecountry is projected to face signifificant water-stress by 2040.[363][364] To circumvent this, the Public Utilities Board has implemented the "four national taps" strategy – water

imported from neighbouring Malaysia, urban rainwater catchments, reclaimed water (NEWater) and seawater desalination.[365] Singapore's approach does not rely only onphysical infrastructure; it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.[366] Singapore has declaredthat it will be water self-suffificient by the time its 1961 long-term water supply agreement with Malaysia expires in 2061. However, according to offificial forecasts, water demand inSingapore is expected to double from 380 to 760 million US gallons (1.4 to 2.8 billion litres; 1.4 to 2.8 million cubic meters) per day between 2010 and 2060. The increase isexpected to come primarily from non-domestic water use, which accounted for 55% of water demand in 2010 and is expected to account for 70% of demand in 2060. By thattime, water demand is expected to be met by reclaimed water at the tune of 50% and by desalination accounting for 30%, compared to only 20% supplied by internalcatchments.[367][368]

Singapore is expanding its recycling system and intends to spend $7.4 billion (Sg$10 billion) in water treatment infrastructure upgrades.[369] The Ulu Pandan wastewatertreatment was specially built to test advanced used water treatment processes before full deployment and won the Water/Wastewater Project of the Year Award at the 2018Global Water Awards in Paris, France.[370] Operation started in 2017 and was jointly developed by PUB and the Black & Veatch + AECOM Joint Venture.[371]


Main articles: Demographics of Singapore and Singaporeans

See also: Race in Singapore

As of mid-2018, the estimated population of Singapore was 5,638,700 people, 3,471,900 (61.6%) of whom were citizens, while the remaining2,166,800 (38.4%) were permanent residents (522,300) or international students, foreign workers, or dependants (1,644,500).[3] According to thecountry's 2010 census, nearly 23% of Singaporean residents (i.e. citizens and permanent residents) were foreign born; if non-residents werecounted, nearly 43% of the total population were foreign born.[372][373]The same census also reports that about 74.1% of residents were of Chinese descent, 13.4% of Malay descent, 9.2% of Indian descent, and3.3% of other (including Eurasian) descent.[372] Prior to 2010, each person could register as a member of only one race, by default that of his orher father, therefore mixed-race persons were solely grouped under their father's race in government censuses. From 2010 onward, people mayregister using a multi-racial classifification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.[374]The median age of Singaporean residents was 40.5 in 2017,[375] and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014,the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population.[376] The government has attempted to increase fertility withlimited success, as well as adjusting immigration policy to maintain its working-age population.[377][378]91% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the averagehousehold size is 3.43 persons (which include dependants who are neither citizens nor permanent residents).[379][380] However, due to scarcity ofland, 78.7% of resident households live in subsidised, high-rise, public housing apartments developed by the Housing and Development Board(HDB). Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one livingroom) HDB flflat or in private housing.[381][382] Live-in foreign domestic workers are quite common in Singapore, with about 224,500 foreigndomestic workers there, as of December 2013.


Main article: Languages of Singapore

Singapore has four offificial languages: English, Malay, Mandarin, and Tamil. [389]English is the lingua franca[390][391][392][393] and the main language used in business, government, law and education.[394][395]The Constitution of Singapore and all government legislation is written in English, and interpreters are required if a languageother than English is used in the Singaporean courts. [396][397]Statutory corporations conduct their businesses in English, whileany offificial documents written in a non-English offificial language such as Malay, Mandarin, or Tamil are typically translated intoEnglish to be accepted for use.[398][391][399]Malay was designated as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the 1960s toavoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours of Malaysia and Indonesia.[145] It has a symbolic, rather thanfunctional purpose.[389][400][401] It is used in the national anthem Majulah Singapura, [402] in citations of Singaporean orders anddecorations and in military commands.[403][404] Singaporean Malay is offificially written in the Latin-based Rumi script, thoughsome Singaporean Malays also learn the Arabic-based Jawi script. [405] Jawi is considered an ethnic script for use on Singaporean identity cards.[406]

Singaporeans are mostly bilingual, typically with English as their common language and their mother-tongue as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve eachindividual's ethnic identity and values. According to the 2020 census, English was the language most spoken at home, used by 48.3% of the population; Mandarin was next,spoken at home by 29.9%.[404][407] Nearly half a million speak other ancestral Southern varieties of Chinese, mainly Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese, as their home language,although the use of these is declining in favour of Mandarin or just English.[408] Singapore Chinese characters are written using simplifified Chinese characters. [409]Singaporean English is largely based on British English, owing to the country's status as a former crown colony. [410][411] However, forms of English spoken in Singapore range

from Standard Singapore English to a colloquial form known as Singlish, which is discouraged by the government as it claims it to be a substandard English creole thathandicaps Singaporeans, presenting an obstacle to learning standard English and rendering the speaker incomprehensible to everyone except to another Singlish speaker.[412]Standard Singapore English is fully understandable to all Standard English speakers, while most English-speaking people do not understand Singlish. An interview with a Singlish speaker shown on English-language television therefore requires translated Standard English subtitles. Nevertheless, Singaporeans have a strong sense of identity and connection to Singlish, whereby the existence of Singlish is recognised as a distinctive cultural marker for many Singaporeans.[413] As such, in recent times, the government has tolerated the diglossia of both Singlish and Standard English (only for those who are flfluent in both), whilst continuously reinforcing the importance of Standard English amongstthose who speak only Singlish (which is not mutually intelligible with the Standard English of other English-speaking countries).


Main article: Healthcare in Singapore

Singapore has a generally effificient healthcare system, even though health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries.[446]The World Health Organisation ranks Singapore's healthcare system as 6th overall in the world in its World Health Report. [447] Singaporehas had the lowest infant mortality rates in the world for the past two decades.[448] In 2019, Singaporeans had the longest lif expectancyof anycountry at 84.8 years. Women can expect to live an average of 87.6 years with 75.8 years in good health. The averages are lowerfor men.[449] Singapore is ranked 1st on the Global Food Security Index. [450]As of December 2011 and January 2013, 8,800 foreigners and 5,400 Singaporeans were respectively diagnosed with HIV,[451] but thereare fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per 100,000 people. There is a high level of immunisation. [452] Adult obesity is below 10%.[453]

In 2013, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Singapore as having the best quality of life in Asia and sixth overall in the world.[454]The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: Medifund, which provides a safetynet for those not able to otherwise afford healthcare; Medisave, a compulsory national medical savings account system covering about85% of the population; and Medishield, a government-funded health insurance program. Public hospitals in Singapore have aconsiderable autonomy in their management decisions, and notionally compete for patients, but remain in government ownership.[455] A subsidy scheme exits for those on low income.[456] In 2008, 32% of healthcare was funded by the government. Healthcare accounts for approximately 3.5% of Singapore's GDP.[457]


Main article: Culture of Singapore

Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures.[458] Former prime ministers of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yewand Goh Chok Tong, have stated that Singapore does not fifit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society–in–transition, pointing out the fact that Singaporeans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.[458][459] Singaporeans whospeak English as their native language would likely lean toward Western culture (along with either Christian culture or secularism),[460] whilethose who speak Chinese as their native language mostly lean toward Chinese culture, which has linkages with Chinese folk religion, Buddhism,Taoism and Confucianism. Malay–speaking Singaporeans mostly lean toward Malay culture, which itself is closely linked to Islamicculture. [461][462 Tamil–speaking Singaporeans mostly lean toward Tamil culture, which itself is mostly linked to Hindu culture. Racial and religious

harmony is regarded as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.[463][464]When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1963, most Singaporean citizens were transient migrant labourers who hadno intention of staying permanently.[465] There was also a sizeable minority of middle–class, locally born people—known as Peranakans orBaba–Nyonya—descendants of 15th- and 16th-century Chinese immigrants. With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties toSingapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaya, China and India. After independence, the governmentbegan a deliberate process of crafting a uniquely Singaporean identity and culture.[465] Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state. [466][467] Thegovernment also places a heavy emphasis on meritocracy, where one is judged based on one's ability.[468]

The national flflower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid, Vanda 'Miss Joaquim', named in memory of a Singapore–born Armenian woman, whocrossbred the flflower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in 1893.[469] Singapore is known as the Lion City and many national symbols such as thecoat of arms and the lion head symbol make use of a lion. Major religious festivals are public holidays. 


Main article: Singaporean cuisine

Singapore's diversity of cuisine is touted as a reason to visit the country, due to its combination of convenience, variety, quality, and price.[482] Local food items generally relate to a particular ethnicity – Chinese, Malay and Indian; but the diversity of cuisine has increased further by the hybridisation of different styles (e.g., the Peranakan cuisine, a mix of Chinese and Malay cuisine). In hawker centres,

cultural diffusion is exemplifified by traditionally Malay hawker stalls also selling Tamil food. Chinese stalls may introduce Malay ingredients, cooking techniques, or entire dishes into their range of catering.[482] Hainanese chicken rice, based on the Hainanese dishWenchang chicken, is considered Singapore's national dish.[483][484]The city-state has a burgeoning food scene ranging from hawker centres (open-air), food courts (air-conditioned), coffee shops (open-air

with up to a dozen hawker stalls), cafes, fast food, simple kitchens, casual, celebrity and high-end restaurants.[485] Cloud kitchens and food delivery are also on the rise, with 70% of residents ordering from delivery apps at least once a month.[486][487] Many international celebrity chef restaurants are located within the integrated resorts. [488] Religious dietary strictures exist (Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef), and there is also a signifificant group of vegetarians. The Singapore Food Festival which celebrates Singapore'scuisine is held annually in July.[489]

Prior to the 1980s, street food was sold mainly by immigrants from China, India, and Malaysia to other immigrants seeking a familiar taste. In Singapore, street food has longbeen associated with hawker centres with communal seating areas. Typically, these centres have a few dozen to hundreds of food stalls, with each specialising in one or morerelated dishes.[490][485] While street food can be found in many countries, the variety and reach of centralised hawker centres that serve heritage street food in Singapore isunique.[491] In 2018, there were 114 hawker centres spread across the city centre and heartland housing estates. They are maintained by the National Environment Agency,which also grades each food stall for hygiene. The largest hawker centre is located on the second flfloor of Chinatown Complex, and contains over 200 stalls.[491] The complex isalso home to the cheapest Michelin-starred meal in the world – a plate of soya-sauce chicken rice or noodles for S$2 (US$1.50). Two street food stalls in the city are the fifirst inthe world to be awarded a Michelin star, obtaining a single star each.

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